The Shape and Role of Mountains
1. The shape of the Mountains:
§ All ancient books and dictionaries define mountains as either a pile of rock on the earth surface or a wrinkle in the earth crust.
§ Modern science shows that 1/3 of the mountain height is above the surface of the earth and 2/3 is below the surface of the earth.
2. The role of the Mountains
§ Theory of tectonic plates defines the role of mountains is to stabilize the earth crust
§ Mountains clench the plates in the Earth's crust together by extending above and beneath the Earth's surface at the conjunction points of these plates. In this way, they fix the Earth's crust, and prevent it from drifting over the magma stratum or among its plates. Briefly, we may liken mountains to nails that keep pieces of wood together
§ This fixing function of the mountains is described in scientific literature by the term "isostasy“
§ Isostasy is the general equilibrium in the Earth's crust maintained by a yielding flow of rock material beneath the surface under gravitational stress. (Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary, 2. edition "Isostasy", New York, s. 975)
§ Asthenosphere is the upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, in which there is relatively low resistance to plastic flow and convection is thought to occur
§ Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeper into the mantle. Reference (General Science, Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, Samuel F. Howe; Allyn and Bacon Inc. Newton, Massachusetts, 1985, s. 305)
A. [Quran 21:31] We placed firmly RAWASIA on the earth, so it would not move under them.
§ The Arabic noun RAWASIA means something that causes the verb RASA, which means anchor. The verse talks about the RAWASIA, which are the heavy mountains that anchors the earth from moving.
§ About 35 different translators of Quran translated RAWASIA as mountains. The Arabic dictionary Al-Ma’any Al-Jami’a translated RAWASIA as mountains.
B. [Quran 79:32] And the mountains He ARSAHA.
§ Links the mountains to the root verb RASA and the noun RAWASIA.
C. [Quran 16:15] And He has set up on the earth RAWASIA, otherwise it would shake with you; and rivers and roads.
D. [Quran 31:10] He [it is who] has created the skies without any supports that you could see, and has placed RAWASIA upon the earth, lest it sway with you, and has caused all manner of living creatures to multiply thereon. And We send down water from the skies, and thus We cause every noble kind [of life] to grow on earth.
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